The break or fracture of the clavicle (collarbone) is a common sports injury associated with contact sports such as football and martial arts, as well as impact sports such as motor racing. A direct blow over the shoulder that may occur during a fall on an outstretched arm or a motor vehicle accident may cause the clavicle bone to break.
A break in a bone that makes up the shoulder joint is called a shoulder fracture.
The clavicle and end of the humerus closest to the shoulder are the bones that usually get fractured. The scapula, on the other hand, is not easily fractured because of its protective cover by the surrounding muscles and chest tissue.
The term SLAP (superior–labrum anterior-posterior) lesion or SLAP tear refers to an injury of the superior labrum of the shoulder.
The most common causes include falling on an outstretched arm, repetitive overhead actions such as throwing and lifting a heavy object. Overhead and contact sports may put you at a greater risk of developing SLAP tears.
Traumatic injury to the shoulder or overuse of the shoulder (throwing, weightlifting) may cause the labrum to tear. In addition, aging may weaken the labrum leading to injury.
Shoulder ligament injuries are injuries to the tough elastic tissues present around the shoulder that connect bones to each other and stabilize the joint. The ligaments present in the shoulder are connected to the ends of the scapula, humerus, and clavicle bones which form the shoulder complex. The extensive stretching or tearing of these ligaments from acute or chronic injuries can lead to instability in the shoulder joint.
Internal shoulder impingement can be described as a pathological condition resulting from repetitive impingement of the internal surface of the rotator cuff by the bones at the back of the glenohumeral joint.
The glenohumeral joint of the shoulder is formed by the head of the humerus (rounded end of the upper arm bone) that articulates with a cavity called the glenoid at the side of the scapula (shoulder blade). The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that help stabilize the joint and enable certain shoulder movements.